Thursday, August 20, 2015

Bodybuilding or Biomechanics: Who's Your Daddy?

This is the handout of a talk I gave 8/20/2005 for the NSCA New York State Annual Clinic.
Pedro Martinez had just said "the Yankees are my daddy", and my point was, who is influencing your training ideas, the muscle media or actual biomechanics?
Based on my observations of the other speakers and the reaction to my slides, I made a few changes to how I presented going forward. For instance, up to this point (2005) I could refer to Arnold, Lou, etc. and the audience knew; here, no one attending had any idea. Good point, that about the 70s muscle myths, but no longer relevant to those attending.
The biomechanics and physiology, though, still count; as far as I can tell, no evolutionary changes in the last ten years.

Bodybuilding or Biomechanics: Who’s Your Daddy?

Bill De Simone
August 20, 2005

I.            Introduction
A.    1970’s bodybuilding lore part of today’s fitness industry
1.      1970s bodybuilding images
2.      High Volume vs. High Intensity, etc.
3.      Today’s industry leaders grew up on this

B.     Contradictions with biomechanics
1.      Identify disconnects in concepts and exercises
2.      Review muscle and joint science
3.      Compare and suggest modifications
C.     You as the professional should be aware
1.      Clients trust you with their muscles and joints
a)      Responsible for acute and long-term effects
2.      Difference between metaphor and science
a)      Motivation or mistake
3.      Applying this material leads to
a)      Cleaner exercise selection
b)      less joint stress
c)      more effective exercises

II.         The Bodybuilding Concepts
A.    Full Range of Motion
1.      “enhance both muscle strength and flexibility” (ACE)
2.      “this is the only way to stimulate the entire muscle and every possible muscle fiber” (AS)
B.     Peak Contraction
1.      “enhance the strength stimulus” (WW)
2.      “to create maximum height” (AS)
C.     Sticking Point of an Exercise
1.      “muscles being worked harder” (AJ)
2.      “point in the exercise ROM where weakest”

III.       Review of the Relevant Muscle Science
A.    Organization of muscle
1.      Fibers in parallel, made up of
2.      Myofibrils in parallel, made up of
3.      Sarcomeres in series
B.     Contraction
1.      Sliding filament theory
2.      Force pattern: increase/decrease
3.      Duplicated at every level of organization
C.     Graphic representation
1.      Tension-length curves
2.      active and passive tension
3.      variable force

IV.        The Disconnects Between Muscle Science and Bodybuilding
A.     Full range of motion vs. tension-length curves, passive tension
B.     Peak contraction vs. active insufficiency
1.      Demonstrations:
a)      Fist v  wrist flexion
b)      Knee extension with hip flexion
C.     Fiber recruitment: techniques vs. load
1.      All-or-none principle
a)      All fibers in a motor unit contract or not, which means
b)      All associated myofibrils and sarcomeres attached contract
c)      Dependent on load, not ROM
2.      Fiber types
a)      Slow vs fast twitch, hierarchy
b)      Near maximal loads to recruit most units
c)      Fast twitch capable of increased size
3.      “Advanced” techniques may be valid
a)      Recruitment may not be the mechanism

V.           The Sticking Point; or, Maximum Resistance Moment Arm
A.    Interpretations
1.      point where muscles work harder (AJ)
a)      implied, where they get stronger
2.      point in exercise ROM where muscles are weakest (M&F)
a)      contradicts AJ
B.     “Levers of the Musculoskeletal System”
1.      definitions of lever, fulcrum, moment arm, torque
2.      dumbbell curl diagram
C.     Maximum Resistance Moment Arm
1.      separate phenomena from Peak Muscle Torque
2.      function of resistance relative to the body
D.    Resistance Torque Analysis
1.      concept more important than labels
2.      positive-first
a)      what happens with too heavy a load?
3.      negative-first
a)      what happens with too heavy a load?
b)      eccentric capable of heavier load
c)      zero moment arm to max

VI.        Biomechanical Concerns of Common Exercises
A.    Side Raise
1.      RTA discourages impingement
2.      Mismatch
3.      modification
4.      no immediate risk
B.     DB Pullover
1.      RTA vs Muscle Torque Graph
2.      Immediate risk with heavy weight
3.      Straight Elbow Pulldown as substitute
C.     Curl
1.      RTA approximates Muscle Torque
a)      MT graph
b)      RTA diagram
2.      Carrying Angle
a)      DBs preferred to fixed width
D.    Squat
1.      RTA
a)      peak torque for glutes, hams, quads
2.      Catastrophic injuries
a)      Flex, Club Industry
b)      Eccentric first
c)      Zero MA to Max
d)     Spine is not a shaft
e)      Patella
3.      Precautions
a)      Build up to max attempts
b)      Spine extension exercises separate from glute/quad
c)      Smith machine with adjustable stops
d)     Moderate depth

VII.      Conclusion
A.    Recognize the concept behind Maximum Moment Arm
1.      Where to assist/ to spot
2.      most practical, immediate application
B.     Exercise selection
1.      Classic, basic exercises more conducive for weight progression
a)      Better match between RMA and Muscle Torque
2.      “Single joint” exercises
a)      Disparity between RMA and MT prohibits dramatic progression in weight
C.     Biomechanics count
1.      “Bodybuilding” may be motivation/al
2.      Real consequence to loading your clients’ joints